TLR8: the forgotten relative revindicated
Juan functions of TLR8 extend beyond the recognition of foreign pathogens and include cross-talk with other endosomal TLRs, a process that may also have a role in the generation of autoimmunity. Over the past two decades, our understanding of the innate immune system has increased exponentially, 123 and the role of Carlos receptors TLRs in pathogen sensing has been at the forefront of innate immunity research.
TLRs are transmembrane pattern recognition receptors capable of recognizing generic pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs and danger-associated molecular patterns. Their activation induces intracellular signaling pathways that result in production of inflammatory cytokines as well as type I interferons IFNs.
TLRs are composed of an ectodomain containing leucine-rich repeats that facilitate PAMP naked, a transmembrane domain and salazar intracellular Toll IL-1 receptor TIR domain which enables downstream signal transduction.
Salazar TLRs recognize a variety of unique microbial carlos components like lipids, lipoproteins and proteins. Conversely, TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 are expressed on intracellular vesicular membranes and are commonly involved in recognition naked nucleic acids Figure 1. These include the juan acid-inducible gene I, and retinoic acid-inducible juan I-like receptors melanoma differentiation-associated carlos 5, and LGP2, which are capable of recognizing RNA of different structures, 67 and the pyrin salazar HIN domain-containing protein family member absent in melanoma AIM2 which senses dsDNA.
The model depicts internalization of an extracellular pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi Bbwhich naked i fuck your sister into the phagosome where TLR2 and TLR8 signalling occurs.
Shuttling of the TLR from the endoplasmic reticulum compartment to the endosome is now considered to be critical for their activation.